Wednesday, July 8, 2020

Contrasting Spellbound with The Stud as Examples of Romance and Anti-romance Fiction - Literature Essay Samples

Both romance and anti-romance hold connotations of triviality and low-brow culture, reducing women to simplistic figures in which to indulge. Yet, for all their critical analyses, it seems inconclusive as to which genre is more sexist. This question may be addressed with reference to authorial intent, but, as Edward Said claims, ‘the reader is a full participant in the production of meaning, being obliged as a moral thing to act, to produce some sense’ , indicating that both genres operate ideologically only to the extent to which the reader interpolates it. This essay will examine the theory that such readings of sexism depend on how the novels are received, using the idea of ethnographic consideration in order to study this. I will be dividing reception of these genres into the passive pleasure readers and the ironic or critical readers. Spellbound and The Stud exemplify the varied potential readings of the two genres. Both are primarily intended for fast-paced consump tion by a mass audience, and are what Snitow describes as ‘easy to read pablum’ . Certainly, today’s commodity culture has produced a certain depthlessness, reflecting Adorno and Horkheimer’s theory of the culture industry churning out pseudo-individualised commodities to be consumed passively in leisure time. Romances are more obviously liable to be condemned by feminist criticism due to their female characters relying on men for fulfilment. Spellbound in particular may be thus condemned due to its references to the medieval era- an almost nostalgic allusion to a patriarchal period in which women had a stricter, more subservient role in romantic relationships. However, this essay will investigate the argument that anti-romance, despite its supposedly empowering message to women, is also sexist in its representation of how its women gain and maintain such power. Most obviously, anti-romance novels (The Stud being a particularly apt example due to its male and female narrative perspectives) are able to alter Laura Mulvey’s idea of the male gaze domination and the objectification of women in art . Though seemingly empowering for women previously subjected to the gaze (as Bryna is in Spellbound through the male narrative perspective as well as being the subject of both male characters’ desires), it is clear through The Stud that the gaze is seemingly appropriate to the celebrity figure, meaning women as well as men are still objectified. In fact, both Bryna and Fontaine relish in the male gaze, though the former for matrimonial monogamy and the latter for power. Yet, both bear traits of sexism, as romance dictates that women centre their lives around finding a husband, while anti-romances gives the impression that identity correlates directly with appearance, indicating that women remain under superficial scrutiny in the modern world. Certainly, Tony criticises how Fontaine is ‘a bit lacking in the tits and ass depa rtment’ , despite succumbing to her dominance, which suggests that the male gaze will remain even with the new status of women. The Stud reduces woman’s agency to superficial display of material prosperity. Yet, the females’ skills revolving around consumption and celebrity image prove to be lucrative in the context of this contemporary world, and act as a source of economic power. This differs from the domestic sphere of feminine sentimentality; compared to the nineteenth century sentimentalism and domestic traditions, the sex and shopping novel permeates the convention of male writing representing public, rational social criticism, rather than relying on the domestic, emotional commentary in which women were considered to be concerned only with maternal and domestic yearnings. Through this genre, women are now positioned within consumer culture rather than relegated solely to the domestic realm. This may be viewed as an empowering new position for women as it not only places women in the public/business sphere of consumerism, but also depicts the male narrative of ambition and economic mobility. Aside from the overwhelming emergence in commodity culture, the anti-romance novel rewrites the American Dream narrative, appropriating it to the contemporary ability for women to have a self-made woman story, thereby refuting traditional representations of women. However, through this, characters such as Fontaine display essentially male characteristics of ambition, but also hedonism, excess, narcissism and the seeking for immediate gratification. The Stud also depicts a dependence on men as well as immorality and exploitation in regards to the way women achieve their wealth. This could be read, as Felski sees is, ‘as a redress of past inequities’ , providing the prospect for women to, in their own way, dominate. Alternatively, it may be regarded as hypocritical of criticisms made against men in patriarchal society, denoting the dam aging effects of such a representation of women as encouraging the use of sexuality and appearance to gain economic and social mobility. Additionally, this representation retains the idea that women lack intellectual depth, and even this reliance on social manipulation and sexual exploitation is unstable; for example, Fontaine’s husband, the reliant funding and prestige behind her extravagant lifestyle, leaves her. To this extent, the novel portrays the idea that women still have to sacrifice a part of themselves in order to gain success, just as Bryna sacrifices a lifetime for Calen. In this celebrity circle, it remains socially unacceptable to have a husband that is not deemed respectable. Furthermore, commodity consumption presents an opportunity for fulfilment, depicting how women are seduced by material wealth, just as romance heroines are seduced by men. For example, Fontaine makes up with Benjamin because she simply must have the fur coat she wants him to buy her in or der to impress her social circle. Thus, the sex and shopping novel applies similar social constraints and pressures to that of patriarchal society, and arguably harsher constraints than the world of romances like Spellbound, whose female protagonist at least has the potential for a compassionate relationship. Nonetheless, Kay Mussell remarks that romance novels fail ‘to elaborate mature and triumphant models for female life beyond marriage, motherhood and femininity’ , just as The Stud fails to elaborate models for female life beyond consumer and celebrity culture. Therefore, it is evident that both genres establish constraints upon women. In her article, Regis writes that ‘canonical romance writers have employed [romance form] to free their heroines from the barrier and free them to choose the hero’ . There is emphasis throughout the article on women’s free choice, yet romances such as Spellbound establish the hegemonic ideology of monogamous marria ge and the vital need to find a man to complete one’s life, and thus refuses to provide other options for female fulfilment. Douglas corroborates this, claiming that courtship in romance novels is reduced to ‘coupling in the wary primitive modes of animal mating’ , thus providing limiting horizons for women. As Modleski sees it, romances encourage the reader ‘to participate in and actively desire feminine self-betrayal’ , as indeed Bryna waits and relies on Calen for one thousand years with no question of this commitment begged from the reader. On the other hand, a significant aspect of the sex and shopping novels such as The Stud centres around the idea that women can enjoy free sex without shame, but in doing so it negates any emotional connection and reduces it to hedonistic insignificance. Thus, both portrayals are limiting in portraying female fulfilment. In addition, the lack of depth and complexity in the writing style of both texts further in dicates a lack of intelligence as a vehicle for women, both in terms of the characters presented and the metatexual concept of low-brow popular fiction associations. In The Stud, the emphasis on glamour and materiality serves to highlight the retaining of femininity of women in a masculine role of dominance and economic autonomy. However, to a critical rather than a pleasure reader, this may portray the postmodern view of the social construction of gender, drawing on Judith Butler’s theories of gender performativity as a social construction. To this extent, the overtly camp aesthetic of the lifestyle and characters in the novel serves as a form of ironic resistance of hegemonic gender roles. Andrew Ross asserts that in camp presentation the exaggeration of the characterisation helps undermine and challenge the accepted normality of essentialist gender roles , linking to Robertson’s ideas on gender parody as a means of critique . Considering this, one might look to the Brechtian technique of verfrumdungseffekt , as the exaggerated characterisation of the camp aesthetic estranges the audience in order to give them detached judgment of dominant gender roles. However, with ethnographic consideration, it is clear that the majority of the anti-romance audience are passive, pleasure readers, meaning one must assume that most would not read this deeply. As Robertson remarks, ‘camp is a reading/viewing practice which, by definition, is not available to all readers; for there to be a genuinely camp spectator, there must be another hyperbolical spectator who views the object ‘normally’’ . This again asserts the idea of a divided audience between the Adorno’s idea of ‘passive dupes’ and the critical readers. Moreover, as a piece of popular culture, one should not necessarily read such text socio-politically. Indeed, Susan Sontag remarks that the constructed and stylised manner of the camp aesthetic, by its very nature, is apolitical , the point being its utter frivolousness and not its ability to critique. It is certainly difficult to read such a text as a serious social critique, especially considering the authors.Authorial celebrity and homology, exemplified by Jackie Collins and Nora Roberts, provides evidence for their novels being a celebration rather than critique of this lifestyle and position of women. Certainly, sex and shopping novels almost instruct the reader on social mobility within the lifestyle of the rich and the famous, and the intertextual evidence of authors’ own celebrity depicts an encouragement for the values displayed in the novels. For example, Collins socialises within real-life celebrity circles, and makes a living on revealing secrets to the population on chat shows and online forums. This denotes a voyeuristic fascination rather than distanced critiquing; it seems to aim for readers to live out their fantasies through the characters. This celebratory re presentation appears to condone a new definition of femininity, though that definition still includes engendered roles, as men are needed to fund women and provide them status. In order to determine the effects of such representations, one has to ethnographically evaluate how such texts are received. Both The Stud and Spellbound represent mythic genres that depict exceptional, extraordinary heroines. The pleasure here is from viewing this extraordinary femininity, and thus does not denote commentary of social reality. Indeed, this follows Robertson’s logic of ‘the pleasure of masquerade’ , that is distanced from reality. As Adorno and Horkheimer would see it, the readers of romance and anti-romance ‘seek novelty, but the strain and boredom associated with actual work leads to avoidance of effort in that leisure time which offers the only chance for really new experience. As a substitute, they crave a stimulant’ . In this way, the readers are not nece ssarily expected or expecting to directly refer to reality when reading these texts. As Douglas sees it, romances ‘are porn softened for the needs of female emotionality’ , and The Stud, while not passionately or explicitly sexual, acts as a form of female pornography in its titillation of female power and dominance. In either case, the categorisation of ‘pornography’ indicates a lack of realism, and more an indulgence for reason of pleasure, rather than reflections on reality. However, the potential for real-life association would be more plausible in The Stud, which may be read as a vision for a desired reality because the descriptions of commodity culture are very much existing and prospering, as well as the authors indulging in that very lifestyle and almost encouraging it. Meanwhile, the fantastical world of Spellbound exemplifies the reader’s escape into a mythic world and is not expected to reflect reality. It seems, then, that anti-romanceà ¢â‚¬â„¢s close correlation with real-life makes it more demeaning in its reflection of reality, as opposed to an escapist’s utopian sensibility that does not necessarily reflect real-life desires. Nonetheless, romances may be seen, as Regis asserts, as an ‘enslaver of women’ , implying that romances have hegemonic repercussions in the real world of restricting female aspirations to heterosexual, monogamous wifehood. This subjective inconclusiveness directs us to Roland Barthes, whose ‘Death of the Author’ voices the concept that it is for the reader to find meaning, relegating authorial intent and majority reception to irrelevancy. To this extent, the reader is free to produce any reading of the texts; despite the lack of intention, there still exists the potential for any implicit meaning to be found, thus negating any possibility of conclusively determining which genre imparts the more damaging representation of women. Overall, considering both t he authorial intent and the mass reception of these novels, the bourgeois idea of cognitive connection to culture is seemingly unfitting to a study of popular fiction; instead the focus is on pleasure, not critical analysis. As Andrew Britton explores the concept of Hollywood blockbusters, so too is popular music to be ‘consumed’ rather than ‘read’ with the postmodern logic of spectacle over content . Undoubtedly, such forms of ‘art’ are created chiefly for the marketplace, and thus do not deliberately operate ideologically. However, if one were to read such texts as indicators of the female role, it seems evident that, despite its feminist intention of empowering women, the anti-romance genre, exemplified by The Stud, signifies an equally restricting and demeaning representation of women as may be seen in romance novels; it merely appropriates concerns of finding a male to the ascertaining of wealth and status through manipulation and exploita tion, both reducing the female to two-dimensional life aspirations. Bibliography:Adorno, Theodor, and Max Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment, (Stanford University Press: 2002).Adorno, Theodor, Essays on Music: Theodor W. Adorno, (London: University of California Press, 2002).Barthes, Roland ‘The Death of the Author’ in Image, Music, Text trans. By Stephen Heath (London: Fontana, 1977). Britton, Andrew, Britton on Film: The Complete Film Criticism of Andrew Britton, edited by Barry Keith Grant, (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2009).Butler, Judith, Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity (New York: Routledge, 1990).Collins, Jackie, The Stud, (London: Mayflower Books, 1970). Doane, Mary Ann, The Desire to Desire: The Womans Film of the 1940s (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987). Douglas, Ann, ‘Soft-Porn Culture’, The New Republic, (1980).Ernst, Reni, The Spectator and not the Actor is the Central Focus of Brecht’s S tagecraft, (Dublin: GRIN Verlag, 2008).Felski, Rita, ‘Judith Krantz, Author of ‘The Cultural Logistics of Late Capitalism’, Women: A Cultural Review, vol. 8, no. 2, (England: Oxford University Press, 1997).Gledhill, Christine, ‘Pleasurable Negotiations’, in Female Spectators: Looking at Film and Television, ed. E. Deidre Pribram (New York: Verso, 1988). Modleski, Tania, Loving with a Vengeance: Mass-Produced Fantasies for Women, (Hamden, Conn.: Archon Books, 1982).Mulvey, Laura, ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’, Film Theory and Criticism: Introductory Readings. Eds. Leo Braudy and Marshall Cohen, (New York: Oxford UP, 1999).Mussell, Kay, Fantasy and Reconciliation: Contemporary Formulas of Women’s Romance Fiction, (Greenwood Press: 1984), p. 189.Radway, Janice, ‘The Institutional Matrix: Publishing Romantic Fiction’ in Reading the Romance, (America: University of North Carolina, 1984). Regis, Pamela, A Natural Hi story of the Romance Novel, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2003).Roberts, Nora, Spellbound, (New York: Penguin, 1998).Robertson, Pamela, Guilty Pleasures: Camp from Mae West to Madonna, (London and Durham: Duke University Press, 1996).Ross, Andrew, ‘Politics Without Pleasure’, Yale Journal of Law the Humanities: Vol. 1: Iss. 1, Article 12, (Yale University Press: 1989). Said, Edward The World, the Text and the Critic (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts 1983) p 41.Sontag, Susan, ‘Notes on ‘Camp’ (1964), reprinted in Sontag Against Interpretation (New York: Farrar, Straus Giroux, 1966).Snitow, Ann, Mass Market Romance: Pornography for Women is Different (Cambridge University Press: 1979).

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

How Does Conflict Manifest Itself in Romeo and Juliet

Romeo and Juliet is a classic romantic tragedy that portrays the conflict of love between young teenagers and rival houses. It was written by William Shakespeare and is considered one of the most popular plays he wrote during his lifetime. However although it one of his most popular plays, it is unknown what year the play is set or what year it was written. Throughout the play we follow the two main characters Romeo and Juliet. Romeo who is a Montague and Juliet who is a Capulet are members of two rival houses that find love in a hostile environment. This leads to a lot of conflict between the two households throughout the play and the language which Shakespeare uses enhances this conflict. One way Shakespeare conveyed conflict was through the stylistic feature oxymoron. An oxymoron is a figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction. They are seen throughout the play in numerous occasions were this stylistic feature, oxymoron, is used to heighten the conflict through the language. An example of this is in, Act 2 Scene 2, Juliet says â€Å"Good night, good night. Parting is such sweet sorrow.† when Romeo and Juliet are parting after just have met for the first time. The end of the sentence â€Å"sweet sorrow† is an oxymoron as sweet and sorrow both opposes each other. Shakespeare uses this oxymoron to portray Juliet’s feeling towards Romeo after meeting for the first time. It is â€Å"Sweet† as she is parting and no longer is with the son of the rivalShow MoreRelatedFriar Lawrence711 Words   |  3 Pagesto Romeo and Juliet highlights the conflict between parents and their children within the play. The centrality of the Friars role suggests a notable failure of parental love. Romeo and Juliet cant tell their parents of their love because of the quarrel between the two families. In their isolation, Romeo and Juliet turn to the Friar who can offer neutral advice. At first, the Friar cant believe how quickly Romeo has abandoned Rosaline and fallen in love with Juliet, so he reminds Romeo ofRead MoreThe Antebellum Period : A Great Deal Of Fodder For Social Criticism1536 Words   |  7 Pagesthe novel. One of the main ideas which he posits throughout the novel is that the Southern culture â€Å"that which perseveres on land† (Weinstein) is hypocritical in its actions, in addition to possessing many discriminatory traits. These hypocrisies manifest in several forms, varying from religion to even menial things, such as smoking. This is especially demonstrated within the sleepy Missouri town, when Huck â€Å"want[s] to smoke,† but the Widow refuses him. Within the same paragraph, he comments thatRead MoreValues of Hamlet in comparison to Hamlet movie (2000)2312 Words   |  10 Pagesunrelenting twists and thrills of madness and revenge. I have chose n to compare this play to Michael Almereydas film made in 2000 that is a modern interpretation of the original text and was an attempt to do to Hamlet what Baz Luhrman did to Romeo and Juliet. This a brief synopsis of the play; Hamlet is the son of King Hamlet who died before the play begins. King Hamlets brother, Claudius takes the throne and marries his wife. The story largely tracks the revenge sought by Hamlet after the murdererRead MoreThe Picture of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde1967 Words   |  8 Pages In The Picture of Dorian Gray, Oscar Wilde disputes the role and conflicts between Aestheticism and morality. He exposes his contradictions and inner struggles throughout his three main characters: Lord Henry, a nobleman who criticizes the moralism and hypocrisy of Victorian society and openly expresses his Aesthetic thoughts, Dorian Gray, a handsome model influenced by Lord Henry’s views on beauty and morality, and Basil Hallward, an artist captivated by Dorian’s beauty. The novel mainly dealsRead MoreThe Great Gatsby Analysis5626 Words   |  23 PagesThe title character and protagonist of the novel, Gatsby is a fabulously wealthy young man living in a Gothic mansion in West Egg. He is famous for the lavish parties he throws every Saturday night, but no one knows where he comes from, what he does, or how he made his fortune. As the novel progresses, Nick learns that Gatsby was born James Gatz on a farm in North Dakota; working for a millionaire made him dedicate his life to the achievement of wealth. When he met Daisy while training to be an officerRead MoreElizabethan Era11072 Words   |  45 Pages France was embroiled in its own religious battles that would only be settled in 1598 with the Edict of Nantes. In part because of this, but also because the English had been expelled from their last outposts on the continent, the centuries long conflict between France and England was largely suspended for most of Elizabeths reign. The one great rival was Spain, with which England clashed both in Europe and the Americas in skirmishes that exploded into the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604. An attempt

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Edgar Allan Poe had a life full of tragedies. He is best...

Edgar Allan Poe had a life full of tragedies. He is best known for his mysterious and macabre stories and is considered the inventor of the detective fiction genre. He is one of the first well-know writers that tried to earn a living writing alone, which resulted in a financially difficult career. His works have been printed since 1827 and include classic histories as â€Å"The Tell-Tale Heart†, â€Å"The Raven†, and â€Å"The Fall of the House of Usher†. Edgar Allan Poe was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on January 19, 1809. He was the second child of Elizabeth Arnold Poe and David Poe, Jr., both traveling actors. His older brother was William Henry Leonard Poe, and his younger sister was Rosalie Poe. Poe’s father left their family in 1810, and later†¦show more content†¦Poe went to West Point matriculated as a cadet on July 1, 1830; in October Allan married his second wife and disowned Poe. On February 8, 1831 Poe was found guilty of disobedience of orders and gross neglect of duty, he was later dismissed. He decides to go to New York where he publishes several short stories with the help from his fellow cadet at West Point. In March he returns to Baltimore and on August his older brother Henry dies due to problems with alcoholism. Poe begins to focus more on his career as a writer after the death of his brother. After being rejected many times he sends a letter to Allan asking for help but is ignored. John Allan died and left Poe out of his will, however Allan left money to his illegitimate child whom he had never seen. While living in poverty he started publishing short stories and one of them, The Manuscript Found in a Bottle, won a contest sponsored by the Saturday Visiter. Because of this contest Poe met new people allowing him to publish more stories and to gain an editorial position at the Southern Literary Messenger in Richmond. While working there he developed a reputation as a fearless critic whom attacked not only the author’s work but also insulted them. In May, 1836 Poe marries Virginia, his cousin, who was 13 years old at that time. The marriage proved to be a happy one, and Poe celebrated the joys in his poem Eulalie. Unhappy with the low pay and lack of editorial control at the Messenger, he moved to New York where he

Francis Crick Essay Example For Students

Francis Crick Essay In 1953, Dr. Francis Crick and James Watson discovered the structure of the DNA molecule. This is the molecule which we now know stores the genetic information for all life. Many scientists have claimed the discovery to be the single most important development in biology during the 20th century. Watson and Cricks investigation into the nature of the genetic code and the passing of information from generation to generation has redefined the study of genetics. Also, it has basically created the science of molecular biology. For their outstanding work, James Watson and Dr. Francis Crick were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize. As a youth, Francis Crick attended Northhampton Grammar School . At the age of fourteen he entered Mill Hill School in North London. While there he gained a good education in chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Crick was later an undergraduate study at University College of London where he received a degree in physics in 1937. Crick continued on at University College doing graduate work in physics until his research was interrupted by World War II. After the war, Crick found himself less interested in the field of physics. He found an interest in Erwin Schrodingers book What is Life? The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell. Crick was convinced that many of the fundamental problems of biology could be examined by using the precise concepts and methods of physics and chemistry. The main theory Crick wanted to challenge was that of vitalism. Vitalism was the idea that life processes were due to a vital principle which was not explained by the laws of science. In the middle of the centur y many scientists still believed that the family of macromolecules called proteins contained the key to understanding the chemical basis of genetics. However, Crick remained unconvinced that proteins could hold the key to passing on genetic information. In 1951 Francis Crick met a young American on a postdoctoral fellowship by the name of James Watson. The two scientists discovered that they shared the opinion that DNA, not proteins, was the critical factor in passing on genetic information. They both believed that by solving the structure of the DNA, it would lead to an explanation of the self-replication of genes. Crick and Watsons work to understand what role DNA played in the replication of the gene required them to obtain information from many different sources. In 1944, Oswald Avery had discovered that purified DNA, not proteins, was the main carrier of genetic information. This historic discovery set the stage for Crick and Watson to investigate the role of DNA in the gene. Just like any other scientist, Crick and Watson followed their share of false ideas. But what greatly helped these two scientists was their ability to freely criticize eachother without being offensive. One of the great pieces of work by Francis Crick is t he three-dimensional model of the DNA molecule which he and Watson produced. The model exhibits the two sides of a flexible ladder coiled around a common center to form a double helix. Each outside of the ladder, also called the backbone, is constant throughout the molecule and repeats the phosphate-sugar bond over and over again. Attached to the inside of the backbone at the sugar is part of the ladders rung. This variable part of the DNA molecule consists of one of the four bases adenine, guanine, thymine or cytosine. The sequence of these bases along the inside of the ladder determines the genetic message. The key to Crick and Watsons discovery was the realization that because of its size, shape and chemical makeup, each base on one side of the ladder could pair by hydrogen bonds with only one other base on the other complementary side of the ladder. This meant that the large adenine molecule could pair only with the smaller thymine and the large guanine molecule could pair with only smaller cytosine. Once this structure was grasped the mechanism for molecular replication was obvious. Each of the two strands of the double helix could, upon separation of the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs, serve as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand. These two new strands form to create two double helices. In 1953, Francis Crick received his Ph.D. from Cambridge University. Following that he continued his study of the genetic code. By working with Watson, molecular biologist Sidney Brenner, physicist George Gamov and others, Crick showed how the sequence of four bases in DNA and RNA induced the creation of the sequence of twenty basic amino acids. This initial discovery is still being studied today. By the year of 1966, Crick felt that the foundation of molecular biology had been sufficiently outlined and it was now time for him to pursue other interests. Next, Crick turned his attention to embryology. In 1976 he went to the Salk Institute in C alifornia for a sabbatical year from the Medical Research Council. The following year, he decided to make a career change from the MRC and moved to the Salk Institute to pursue his interest in the workings of the brain. As part of Cricks work he investigated the complex topic of human dreams. This interested Crick because he wanted to know more about neural nets. He discovered that you cannot understand how the brain works by just figuring out how one neuron works. You must understand how groups of neurons interact and work together. When you store too many memories they tend to get in eachothers way. Crick realized that in sleep and REM maybe the brain was trying to separate memories which got confused because they were too alive. Because the kind of mixtures you get in neural nets are the sort of things you have in dreams, Crick believed this to be evidence of that. .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695 , .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695 .postImageUrl , .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695 , .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695:hover , .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695:visited , .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695:active { border:0!important; } .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695:active , .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695 .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud4027dfd40deb53c261ea2cbd4739695:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Evaluation Of A Good Parenting Style Essay The study of the brain has come a long way, but there is still a lot to be learned. Today, Francis Crick is greatly respected for the valuable work he has done in the exploration of the brain. Psychology

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Twelfth Night - Analysis Of Fools Essays (1288 words) - Theatre

Twelfth Night - Analysis of Fools A fool can be defined in many meanings according to theOxford English Dictionary On Historical Principles. The word could mean "a silly person", or "one who professionally counterfeits folly for the entertainment of others, a jester, clown" or "one who has little or no reason or intellect" or "one who is made to appear to be a fool" (word originated from North Frisian). In english literature, the two main ways which the fool could enter imaginative literature is that "He could provide a topic, a theme for mediation, or he could turn into a stock character on the stage, a stylized comic figure". In William Shakespeare's comedy, Twelfth Night, Feste the clown is not the only fool who is subject to foolery. He and many other characters combine their silly acts and wits to invade other characters that "evade reality or rather realize a dream", while "our sympathies go out to those". "It is natural that the fool should be a prominent & attractive figure and make an important contribution to the action" in forming the confusion and the humor in an Elizabethan drama. In Twelfth Night, the clown and the fools are the ones who combine humor & wit to make the comedy work. Clowns, jesters, and Buffoons are usually regarded as fools. Their differences could be of how they dress, act or portrayed in society. A clown for example, "was understood to be a country bumpkin or 'cloun'". In Elizabethan usage, the word 'clown' is ambiguous "meaning both countryman and principal comedian". Another meaning given to it in the 1600 is "a fool or jester". As for a buffoon, it is defined as "a man whose profession is to make low jests and antics postures; a clown, jester, fool". The buffoon is a fool because "although he exploits his own weaknesses instead of being exploited by others....he resembles other comic fools". This is similar to the definition of a 'Jester' who is also known as a "buffoon, or a merry andrew. One maintained in a prince's court or nobleman's household". As you can see, the buffoon, jester and the clown are all depicted as fools and are related & tied to each other in some sort of way. They relatively have the same objectives in their roles but in appearance wise (clothes, physical features) they may be different. In Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, Feste's role in this Illyrian comedy is significant because "Illyria is a country permeated with the spirit of the Feast of Fools, where identities are confused, 'uncivil rule' applauded...and no harm is done". "In Illyria therefore the fool is not so much a critic of his environment as a ringleader, a merry-companion, a Lord of Misrule. Being equally welcome above and below stairs.." makes Feste significant as a character. In Twelfth Night, Feste plays the role of a humble clown employed by Olivia's father playing the licensed fool of their household. We learn this in Olivia's statement stating that Feste is "an allowed fool"(I.v.93) meaning he is licensed, privileged critic to speak the truth of the people around him. We also learn in a statement by Curio to the Duke that Feste is employed by Olivia's father. "Feste the jester... a fool that the Lady Olivia's father took much pleasure in"(II.iv.11). Feste is more of the comic truth of the comedy. Although he does not make any profound remarks, he seems to be the wisest person within all the characters in the comedy. Viola remarks this by saying "This fellow's wise enough to play the fool"(III.i.61). Since Feste is a licensed fool, his main role in Twelfth Night is to speak the truth. This is where the humor lies, his truthfulness. In one example he proves Olivia to be a true fool by asking her what she was mourning about. The point Feste tried to make was why was Olivia mourning for a person who's soul is in heaven? "CLOWN Good madonna, why mourn'st thou? OLIVIA Good Fool, for my brother's death. CLOWN I think his soul is in hell, madonna. OLIVIA I know his soul is in heaven, fool. CLOWN The more fool, madonna, to mourn for your brother's soul, being in heaven. Take away the fool, gentlemen. Adding to the humor of the comedy, Feste, dresses up as Sir Topaz, the curate and visits the imprisoned Malvolio with Maria and Sir Toby. There he uses his humor to abuse Malvolio who is still unaware that he is actually talking to the

Monday, March 16, 2020

Individual Case Google Incorporation

Individual Case Google Incorporation Introduction Google Incorporation is one of the largest internet-based companies in the world. The company’s headquarters is in California. The company deals in areas such as software vending, search engine, and internet marketing. In the recent past, the company has added cloud computing to its products line. The company has grown through product differentiation, acquisitions, and merges in the last ten years.Advertising We will write a custom book review sample on Individual Case: Google Incorporation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The main competitors of Google are Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn, which have the ability to offer alternative perfect substitute to customers who may be unsatisfied with products offered by Google. The company successfully used flexible sourcing, retail distribution, and product focused differentiation to survive the impact of these competitors. As at the end of the year 2013, Google had th e largest market share of 66.7% which was growth by 4% from 63.7% in the year 2010 (Gamble, Peteraf and Thompson, 2015). Google utilized retail distribution (software vending and internet marketing) in the recent past to further expand its presence in markets like Japan, China, and Europe. It applied product differentiation strategy to expand and position itself as search engine. Google’s scope of operations was characterized by online retailing of different internet based products targeting individuals, corporate, and government institutions across the globe market segments. For instance, Google created renowned brands for a number of products within its software vending service. Google applied a series of grand strategies such as concentration, market development, product development, vertical integration, market penetration, and online retail distribution strategies to expose its numerous products across the globe as the most competitive brand. For instance, Google managed to expand its markets outside North America within the first two years of inceptions besides launching a series of new products such as internet marketing and software vending across the globe.Advertising Looking for book review on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Strategic Issue Analysis of Google Incorporation Strategic Capabilities Google has a number of resources that have contributed to its success in the global market over the years. In order to ensure business sustainability, Google has concentrated the focused strategy through clear definition and targeting of specific market segment for its online based products. The strategies are achieved through provision of high quality and unique internet based products, effective distribution and secure network, individual internet user segment, and variety of the internet based products. Despite the success of these strategies, Google is threatene d by its competitors with more or less similar approach in doing business within the Internet Information Providers industry. For instance, Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn threaten to reverse the gains that Google has made in the Internet Information Providers industry. Strategic issue As a prerequisite for sustainable organization performance, the strategic issues that Google is currently facing pivot around the most appropriate market that the company should focus on or neglect in order to survive competition. Under this strategic issue, Google currently faces the dilemmas of critical focus on the most reachable software market, potentials and threats of entering the stratified software market, potential of re-branding its current software and internet marketing brands, and the best strategies of increasing visibility without appearing as a copy cat of the main competitors. Therefore, what are the best strategies that Google should focus on to survive competition in the dynami c Internet Information Providers industry? In order to respond to this question, the following sub questions will be answered. Should Google re-brand or introduce more brands to its current product line? What strategy will be necessary to properly differentiate the Google’s brand? External Environment Analysis Porter’s five forces analysis is necessary for Google as it assists in comprehension of the market strengths and weaknesses. Although Google has been a household name in the global internet information providers industry, there are several players that have limited its competitive advantage in the industry. The five forces determining the competitive advantage of companies operating within the industry are discussed below.Advertising We will write a custom book review sample on Individual Case: Google Incorporation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Industry competitiveness analysis using Porter’s 5 forces model Threat of entry It is very difficult for a new entrant in the Internet Information Providers industry to successfully create a strong brand that can challenge dominance of Google, Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn among others. It would require massive capital for an aspiring investor to outperform their business prowess. Therefore, a new entrant may face difficulty in increasing brand visibility and cutting a piece of the market share. Since the Internet Information Providers industry is characterized by the ability to create high quality brands, a new entrant will have to build a following from scratch. This requires a lot of resources. Threat of substitutes In the internet marketing and software vending segments within the Internet Information Providers industry, threat of possible substitutes is very strong since most of the products are customized to perform specific functions, thus, rarely have substitutes. Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn have the ability to offer an alternative perfect substitute to customers who may be unsatisfied with products offered at Google Incorporation. Unsatisfied customers, therefore have other alternatives from where they can get the products traded by Google. However, imitations may threaten the market of new or current players. When the counterfeits softwares make it into the mainstream market, the revenues of genuine companies will decline. In order to remain relevant, the Google Incorporation has established a unique market for its customer through tailored optometry internet marketing and software products that are customized. Suppliers’ bargaining power In the Internet Information Providers industry, the influence of the suppliers is highest when large volumes of softwares are purchased by a service provider. When the influence is high, profitability of the establishments in this industry is low since the cost of creating and licensing some of the products is very high. Since suppliers within the Inte rnet Information Providers industry operate at local and international levels, their influence differs. For instance, China, India, and Japan suppliers the largest volume of softwares that Google integrates in its business platform to offer fast and reliable search engine. Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft and other industry players have more than 1000 suppliers each.Advertising Looking for book review on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The partnerships between independent manufacturers and vendors of softwares reduce the power of the suppliers in this industry. Google Incorporation has endeavored to use its deep reservoirs as a strategy for balancing the supply forces in the fragile software vending and internet marketing sectors of the US and across the globe. Buyers’ bargaining power There is strong power in the fragmented internet marketing and software vending segments which are indirect and direct to customers. Despite the fact that these search engine businesses have very strong brand names; the buyers in this sector have the power to influence the prices for the products since there are a variety of services to choose from. The power of the buyers is high since this industry is characterized by high competition. Therefore, each company considers the perception of their customers before setting prices in order to survive competition. Fortunately, Google has been consistent in maintaining their prices at half of the average prices of other brands due to global coverage and high economies of scale. Rivalry There are several brands operating in the same industry with virtually all of them dealing with a variety of search engine products and services. Players in the industry must be careful to survive any aggressive move by a competitor through creating a flexible brand name and constant product diversification. For instance, Yahoo provides the biggest competition to Google due to its big market share and expanded network standing at 30%. With many customers looking for good value for their money, quality in service delivery has remained the main basis upon which customers are making their final decision to purchase products in the volatile Internet Information Providers industry of the US and across the globe. All the players in the industry are putting measures in place to ensure they attract more customers and therefore expand their market share through creation of a smooth suppl y chain, diversification, and brand positioning. In line with this, Google has created multiple brands from its internet marketing and software vending products. Key Success Factors Within the External Environment Strong brand Google has established a brand image that enables it to attract customers with less effort as opposed to most of its less established rivals. The entrants have to invest heavily in promotion and advertising for them to attract new customers and maintain their customers. The established brand image has enabled the company to cut on its cost and get increased levels of profitability. Steady commitment to quality Strong commitment to quality and product innovation enables the company to get the right experience for their customers. This has been possible through the recruitment of employees with the right skills and knowledge. These employees are further trained to understand the company production strategies. Moreover, the company conducts more market research t o ascertain customer thoughts and changing demands. Expanded market Google has an active presence in all over America with an expanding presence in all other continents. In the past five years, revenues from sales doubled annually and the company expanded steadily. Market experience Having been in the Internet Information Providers industry for over 10 years, Google has acquired enough experience to compete favorably in the industry. It has had sufficient time to learn from its weaknesses and develop long-term strategies that will anchor it through the future of the market. Industry Analysis Industry Profile and Attractiveness The Internet Information Providers industry has experienced steady growth as more customers embrace renowned brands such as Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn. The global Internet Information Providers industry has an estimated market value of over $200 billion. The US, Asia, and Europe represent 76% of the market share. Despite the economic swing of 2007-200 8 financial years, the players in this industry managed to recover and are currently experiencing an average growth of 20% annually. At present, the Internet Information Providers industry command 18% of the total market value of the consumer internet purchases across the globe. The market share is anticipated to expand further to 22% by the year 2020 (Gamble et al., 2015). The search industry at present is controlled by Google, Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn, who have managed to establish a household name for their brands. Moreover, promotional services adopted by these companies have spurred the growth of internet service market across the globe. In addition, adoption of efficient and reliable technology in the marketing of these products positively skewed the market to the advantage of these internet based giants. Based on the annual growth and market share, the incumbents are positioned to benefit in the future because the industry is highly attractive, especially in the em erging markets in Asia and Africa. Industry structure The Internet Information Providers industry is fragmented because there is no single enterprise with large enough shares to determine the industry’s direction. There are about ten major companies in the industry and the four major players have about 85% share combined and the rest of the industry is made up of small private-owned companies. The largest, most important player in the industry is Google who currently holds 67.5% of the market share on its own. The second largest player in the Microsoft Company with an estimated 18% market share, followed by Yahoo with a 16% global market share (Gamble et al., 2015). The industry is very competitive because these companies offer similar products and trade within the same platform. Because of this, the basis for competition in the industry is price followed by product design. There are five success factors that are the most important to this industry, which include contacts wit hin key markets, guaranteed supply of key inputs, ability to alter goods and services in favor of market conditions, production of services currently favored by the market and a highly trained workforce. The industry is heavily influenced by the state of the economy and consumer’s disposable income. Growth over the past 5 years has come from a post recession increase in consumer’s disposable income. The recent recession is also a good example of this industrys sensitivity to disposable income as 2011 saw a 27.9% decrease in revenue as compared to 2010 (Gamble et al., 2015). Google and other competitors operate in the oligopolistic market structure. The industry has unique operational strategies which can be equated to the ideals of oligopolistic market, characterized by few competitors dominating the global search engine, internet marketing, and software vending markets. Strong commitment to quality and product innovation has enabled these companies to get the right ex perience for their customers. Moreover, the companies conduct more market research to ascertain customer thoughts and changing demands. For instance, Google has consistently increased its production modification and diversification of products in the market instead of reducing output with intent of increasing prices. There are few competitors who dominate the industry such as Google, Yahoo, AOL, Microsoft, and LinkedIn among others. These companies control the industry. The Walt Disney Parks and Resorts Worldwide Incorporation has the largest market control of 24% with the other companies sharing the rest of the market (Gamble et al., 2015). Since the industry is dominated be few global brands, it is very difficult for a new company to enter in this market and breakeven since the competitors benefit from economies of scale. Besides, the capital requirement for entry is very enormous for a new entrant. Most of products and services offered by Google and its competitors are perfect su bstitutes and tend to have similar price ranges due to standardized operational costing and targeting strategies. Since these companies target similar customer segment, they have limited alternatives in terms of multiple pricing. The companies use self advertisement and other forms of media to market different products. The self advertisement is possible due to their global brand image and active presences in the major markets across the globe. The industry structure affects the strategies used by Google and its competitors in terms of pricing of products and customer segmentation. Since the main competitors offer perfect substitute products, Google has to ensure that its prices remain competitive to avoid losing customers to some of the competitors. Besides, the company has to constantly remodel and integrate its products to maintain its current top position, which can easily be taken by the few giant competitors. Since the market structure is oligopolistic, the financial performan ce of Google has been stable and predictable since it has been able to earn very high profits since the barriers to entry such as large capital and logistic support blocks new entrants from penetrating the market. Besides, the company has been able to use product differentiation strategy by offering series of brands from similar product category to ensure that the revenues of the company are above that of its major competitors. Company Situation Financial Standing The financial standing of the Google Inc. has fluctuated significantly between 2008 and 2012. From the balance sheet, it can be observed that the total assets grew from $2.467.12 million in 2010 to $3,663.10 million in 2013. Further, the liabilities rose from $961.82 million in 2010 to $1,242.50 million in 2013. Also, it can be noted that the value of equity followed a similar trend. It increased from $1,505,293 million in 2010 to $2,420.70 million in 2013. The highest growth rate was attained in 2008 where sales grew by 2 1.75%. The least growth rate was attained in 2012 where sales decreased by 5.30%. During the global financial crisis that is in 2009 sales grew by 1.56% only (Gamble et al., 2015). Financial analysis Profitability Return on assets The return on assets improved from 29.79% in 2010 to 33.43% in 2011. It declined to 21.33% in 2012. This implies that the amount of profit generated from a unit of asset decreased over the period. This shows that the profitability and the efficiency in the utilization of the assets of the company declined over the period. This could also be a signal that the property of the company have dilapidated, thus, they cannot engender a considerable amount of returns. Return on equity The values of return on equity were high and they improved from 48.82% in 2010 to 54.62% in 2011. However, in 2012, the value dropped to 32.28%. The high values promises the shareholders high returns for their investments. The declining amount of return on equity can also be caused by the increasing amount of long term debt. An increase in debt results in an increase in interest expense. Liquidity Current ratio The current ratio was fairly stable during the period. The value of the ratio was 2.56 in 2010 and 2.54 in 2012. Thus, it can be observed that the company can adequately pay the short term obligations using current assets. This shows that the company has a sound financial standing. Working capital The working capital rose from $773,605 million in 2010 to $859,371 million in 2011. The value rose further to $1,042 million in 2012. It implies that the value of current assets exceeds the current liabilities. The two liquidity ratios were stable during the period. It shows that the company is effective in liquidity and working capital management. This gives confidence to the debt and capital providers. Leverage Debt to assets The value of debt to total assets was stable during the period. The ratio was 0.3899 in 2010 and 0.3880 in 2011. The fractions imply tha t the percentage of assets that are funded using liability remained stable during the period. The ratios also show that the company maintained a low leverage level during the period. Debt to equity The debt to equity ratio was also stable during the period. The value of the ratio was 0.639 in 2010 and 0.6341 in 2011. It is a suggestion that about 63% of the assets of the company are proactively funded through the debt option. The two leverage ratios show that the Google Company has a low debt proportion in the capital configuration. This gives the company room to take more debt that can be used or growth and expansion. Thus, the company has not fully exploited its potential. The growth prospects will translate to better performance in the future. SWOT Analysis Strengths The stable and management team comprising of directors and several managers is instrumental towards providing necessary support and guidance in provision of software vending, internet marketing, and search engine pro ducts to customers and reviewing current operational strategies in line with the demands of their clients at Google. For instance, the management team introduced the internet marketing service in response to the demands of the clients. This has enabled Google to fund different business project initiatives at affordable loan repayment interest rates. Google also enjoys a wide network and subsidiaries in the US and several representative offices in different regions outside the US. This is important in attracting more customers in those regions where the company is yet to reach full potential. Besides, the numerous branches have improved its products visibility and accessibility. Google has increased own software vending and internet marketing business in the last few years, particularly in Western Europe and North America. Company owned software vending and internet marketing products have become growth drivers and important distribution points for the company. The vivid presentation of Google brands supports differentiated perception by consumers beyond their product experiences, further strengthening the brand image. Moreover, the establishment of a strong and reliable internet marketing product by Google represents a major growth for the company. The other strength of Google is efficient customer relationship management strategy. Weaknesses Google has more presence in the US than other parts of the globe. Specifically, unlike its main competitor Yahoo, Google has limited presence in Asia. Thus, the company does not enjoy the substantive demand in the global market as its customer catchment area is restricted outside the expansive Asian market. Besides, the focus of Google is more on customized internet based brands and products. This is counterproductive in terms of revenue generation since the majority of its customers are small businesses and private individuals who cannot operate in the customized platform. Besides, Google has high inventory cost since it software development is very expensive to create and maintain. Managing some of the research and development projects may not be sustainable in the long run if the annual turnover reduces at Google. As a result of these weaknesses, Google has not been able to efficiently penetrate the small business segment within its Business-to-Business model of operation. Google focus on quality products has compromised its ability to incorporate views of a section of its consumers, such as addition of more search languages. Opportunities Google has an opportunity to expand its scope to cater for expanded product and service lines since its asset base is strong enough to sustain any growth in the market. This opportunity will help in boosting Google’s revenues and leadership position in the global Internet Information Providers industry. As a result, Google will be in a position to double its current revenues and increase the customer base. The company’s global presence and strong performance in most regions demonstrate that it can be successful in nearly all countries of the world. It is on this ground that Google plans entry into the regions where its presence is not yet felt. Secondly, working in collaboration with subsidiary companies may enable ease of entry into new markets. Threats The main threat to the survival of Google is the competition from counterfeit products that may act as direct substitute to its brands. Thus, the expansion and market penetration strategies that Google proposes are likely to face opposition if these fake products are expanding their market share. Google is faced with fierce competition from its rivals, which requires adoption of more vigilant strategies. The soaring demand for software and integrated internet marketing applications across the world may prompt suppliers and independent producers to increase the prices, resulting in high costs of production and lower levels of profitability. Political issues in different marke ts, such as control of internet accessibility in some countries in Asia and Africa may threaten the company from achieving its profitability objectives in the market. Generic and Grand Strategy Recommendations In order to remain competitive, the company should implement focused product differentiation strategy by applying concentration, market development, product development, vertical integration, market penetration, and retail distribution as grand strategies as summarized in appendix 3. Product concentration Google should ponder concentration to its products in countries which do not have strict laws that protect the business, when expanding further to other foreign markets, especially in software vending and internet marketing product segments. Countries like China do not have strict rules which protect business entities from being copied by competitors. Objectives This will help in safeguarding its products’ brands and making sure that it targets specific market segment s. In the process, the company will gain a fair share of the current market controlled by Chinese search engine companies. It will also ensure that Google introduces measures in its operative process that would make it distinct in the market from any firm. Application and justification The introduction of product concentration should be applied while ensuring that the targeted markets, especially in Asia, have customized products that are unique to that region. The key performance indicator will be increased revenue in the Asian market by 6% in the first year of implementation and 10% thereafter. Therefore, product concentration will position Google as a strong incumbent brand in the global Internet Information Providers industry. Vertical integration Google may partner which medium businesses retailing products similar to those of its competitors. For instance, the company may partner with private programmers and software developers to boost its current product brands. Objective The objective of this recommendation is to expand Google’s market and make it easy for customers to access the products. Application and justification This objective can be achieved through created on in-house production, supply chain, and marketing strategies for the software vending through partnerships with private software developers. When properly implemented, the company is likely to counter the strategy of its competitors, such as Yahoo, of reaching the customers through proxy business platforms. The key performance indicator will be reduced inventory cost by 10% in the first year of application since costs related to running the business are expected to drop. This strategy takes some initial costs to develop the integration concept but the advantages are ability to legally protect the product, creation of some barriers to competition, and general promotion of customer loyalty. Innovation Cost leadership strategy is vital in business management, especially in an indus try with stiff competition, such as Google. The company may penetrate the African and Asian markets further through introduction of customized products that target different market segments such as direct customers through an innovative approach. The objective of this recommendation is to adopt the market leadership strategy to improve Google’s product quality and appearance. Objective This objective is achievable through creation of different high quality products and distinctive brands. Application and justification As a result, this venture will develop a cumulative experience, optimal performance, and product availability through application of alternative technology and human skills. The key performance indicator for this strategy is the ability to create a new product, thus increased number of customer ratings by 3% after the first year of implementation. An improved approach to product management through diversification will improve the visibility of Google brands. T he buyer will make an effort to learn the Google’s values, vision, challenges, and operating environment. Such cooperation will turn new brands into a competitive advantage instead of a cost. Operational efficiency Operational efficiency and market niche provide an indication of how well the company manages its resources, that is, how well it employs its assets to generate sales and income. It also shows the level of activity of the corporation as indicated by the turnover ratios. The level of activity for Google has remained relatively stable despite threat of competition, constant change of taste, and varying preference. Objective To ensure that the company streamlines its operational costs. Application and justification Through implementing this proposal, the company will reduce its wage bill and seal cost loop holes. Consumer Centricity Properly designed online marketing and product distribution management facilitate the success and sustainability in online marketing. T o increase credibility and maintain professionalism, the current channels of reaching the consumers at Google should be tailored to encompass processes and features that flawlessly facilitate a healthy and a lifetime relationship between the business and its clients. Objective The new development elements that the company should incorporate include trust, liability acceptance, distribution, fair retribution process, and passing accurate information to target audience in order to restore confidence within these networks. Application and justification Essentially, the success of e-marketing depends on proper alignment of a functional team that is responsible for the creation of flexible and quantifiable measurement tracking tools for periodically reviewing results. This strategy will ensure that the business is sustainable. Strategic justification The above recommendations may become the new blueprint for sustainable expansion, cost management, and product development for Google sin ce the company already has a global appeal and deep capital reservoir. Through implementation of the recommendations, the company will be able to expand its current market share through competitive pricing, innovation, and multiple-branding of its product. As a result, Google will increase its competitive advantage over Microsoft, Yahoo, and other competitors. Conclusion Generally, Google has been largely successful in the market, and bears ability to competently survive in the market. Incorporation of the Porters market forces in the management of this successful US based search engine giant is directly linked to its consistency, profitability, and efficiency. Successful execution solely functions of inclusiveness, creation of quantifiable tracking devices for results, and recruiting an informed support team. Generally, the above recommendations should be practiced flexibly since Google’s operation environment is characterized by constant dynamics that may make previous desi gns irrelevant. Appendices Appendix 1 – Summary of the Five-Force Analysis Appendix 2 –SWOT Summary Strengths Weaknesses Clear product differentiation Strong global brand image Positive urban influence Established online store Failure to focus on the low-end market High inventory costs Opportunities Threats Strong global presence depicts the ease of entry into new regions Better collaboration with subsidiary companies Fierce competition High supplier power reduces profits The threat of counterfeiting products of Google is very high Appendix 3: Summary of industry ratio RATIOS SUB-RATIOS Google Ratio Industry Average (Approx) Profitability Ratios Return of Assets 0.34 Return of Equity 0.29 Liquidity Ratios Current Ratio 2.54 1.60 to 2.30 Quick Ratio 1.36 1.30 to 1.80 Leverage Ratios Debt-Equity Ratio 0.29 Interest Coverage Ratio Efficiency Ratios Assets Turnover Ratio 1.45 1.20 Inventory Turnover Ratio 3.19 Refere nce Gamble, J., Peteraf, M., Thompson, A. (2015). Essentials of strategic management: The quest for competitive advantage. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Achievements of the EU

Achievements of the EU Mao Julin Hay Jean Leang Pisey Kim Chansreynich Hao Kanhamonisopea Bun Kimsour European Union (EU) is a union formed by mainly European countries, which is established in term of economy and politics. Its origin is European Community that formally created in November 1, 1993 which involves with 6 members-Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and Netherland. Nowadays, there are 28 members. EU’s headquarter is located in Brussels, Belgium. So far, European Union has reached many achievements such as the promotion and expansion of cooperation with its Member States in economic, trade, social issues, foreign policy, security, defense, and judicial issues. Another major accomplishment of EU is the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) that makes EU succeed in having a single currency (EURO) along with a common monetary policy. EU is famous for its economy on which many countries around the world are being focused. Economic integration is one of the main goals that EU has considered since its first establishment in 1957, and it has a significantly visible success based on fundamentally by a single currency-the Euro. It is a common currency in the circle of euro area that recently can facilitate the monetary circulation in 18 countries of the member states. Interestingly, its achievement of becoming the second largest currency of the world after dollars has pushed the European community’s economy to flourish further. Euro contributes to maintain the stability and prospect of economic society climate, which attract more investment and international or regional trade through the convenient calculation without involving with the foreign exchange rate. The common monetary policy has been adopted in order to acquire greater achievement, common objective and ensure benefits of all euro area states that use euro as their currency. In addition, cross-border trade and investment are the ultimate goal of Euro zone countries. EU removed trade barri ers in order to facilitate the flow of goods and services, which can fill in each other’s gap between the Member States. The common purpose is to increase competition and take away all restriction obstacles of the free movement of goods in the Common Market so that they can accelerate the economic development. The mobility of products, goods and capital facilitate human consumption within the region. Moreover, the free movement of capital is intended to permit movement of investments such as property purchase and buying of shares between countries. All intra-EU transfers in euro are considered as domestic payments and bear the corresponding domestic transfer costs. Another EU achievement is a so-called Custom Union, which was established in an attempt to adopt the common arrangement for imports from other countries based on common external tariff, provides to all members. This effort is made to develop the world trade and facilitate trade beyond border from all countries arou nd the world. What is more important about its achievements is to establish a society with the same rule for different nationalities; for example, people from each country in the name as membership of EU can possibly travel and move freely to settle down, work, retire, or vote, either permanently or temporarily, without any discrimination. For students who want to experience cross-border education. Thousands of students from EU citizen can get a common standard of education simultaneously experience intercultural understanding and good condition of living and studying in other European member states annually. Due to common passport creation, it has been granted to EU people in order to be indicated as EU citizen and move freely.